The translated terms are taken from the given standards. Several alternative translations may exist. Special thanks for help to Douglas A. Kerr, the principal author and editor of the published standards document of the first complete version of ASCII. See also: C0 NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK HT VT 0B. DLE NAK SYN ETB FS 1C. GS 1D. RS 1E.
PAD HOP HTS HTJ VTS 8A. PLD 8B. PLU 8C. SPA EPA SGCI Format effector. Device control. NUL is defined in the standards as a filler character. It can be used as media-fill or time-fill. NUL doesn't affect the information content of a data stream. It may affect the information layout and the control of equipment, though. NUL was originally intended as an ignorable filler character with no meaning.
Especially convenient on paper tape, where a NUL equals no holes punched, it could be used to reserve space for new information or correcting errors. ASCII even suggests NUL as a "time-waster" character to be added after a newline to accommodate mechanical devices where a carriage return works slowly. Several programming languages use this convention. Indicates the beginning of a heading in a transmission. The heading can be terminated by STX. Later standards have dropped the explanation.
It is not intended for marking a heading in a document. STX has two functions in a transmission: Terminates a text in a transmission. ETX may be used to call for reply from a slave station after a message has been sent. ETX is also commonly used to terminate an interactive process keyboard: Indicates the conclusion of a transmission.
The transmission may have contained one or more texts and associated heading s. EOT can be used to end or abort a transmission. It can also be a reply to indicate inability to receive further messages. EOT keyboard: Requests a response from a remote station. The response may include station identification or status. ACK can indicate that a slave station has received a message correctly and is ready to receive more. BEL is the only control character with an audible effect. It has been used to ring a bell indeed or produce a beep sound. A visual alarm is also possible. Contrary to the standards, BS has been used as a combined "move back and delete" operation to remove the previous character.
This is not the standard meaning of BS, however. BS is defined as a non-destructive "move back" or "move left" operation, similar to a backspace in mechanical typewriters. On paper tape the result would be the previous character being completely punched out erased. BS followed by another character would strike two characters in the same position.
Overstriking was a way to produce combined characters. A letter followed by BS followed by a diacritic symbol would produce an accented letter. A boldface effect could be achieved by striking the same character several times at the same position. Overstriking was a useful option with printing devices, but displays hardly support it. With the advent of more capable character sets and formatting techniques overstriking can be considered outdated.
ASCII does not require overstriking capabilities and suggests that overstriking may be proscribed in the future. ISO explicitly forbids overstriking. Advances to the next pre-determined character position horizontal tab stop. HT could also be used as a skip function on punched cards. Even though the standards don't set a universal tab width, a typical fixed tab width is 8 columns. Other tab widths, as well as custom tab positions, are used as well. HT is a simple method of data compression: How the HT is treated in each application is another story.
In windowing environments, there are three common alternative uses. This way the key has been extended to cover more uses than what HT was originally intended for. The original name of HT is Horizontal Tabulation. LF has two alternative functions. It advances to the same character position on the next line move down , or optionally to the first position on the next line move to start of next line, i. Originally LF was a move-down. A newline option NL was added soon.
Use of LF as a newline requires agreement between sender and recipient of data. Universal agreement has not been reached. LF, having two alternative functions, has been a major source of confusion. While LF was initially defined as a "move down" operator, standards began to allow LF as a newline too. As a result, operating systems differ in their definition of a newline. A newline is LF on Unix. Naturally, this caused an incompatibility. This did not solve the issue, resulting in IND being removed later.
The escape sequence for newline and LF is another source of confusion. Advances to the same character position on the next pre-determined line. The original name of VT is Vertical Tabulation. VT has been used to jump down to the next pre-defined line when printing on a paper form. According to some sources, vertical tab stops were typically spaced 6 lines apart. In modern use VT must be quite a rare character. It cannot be used directly on any terminal that I know of. Advances to the next form or page.
Standards differ in what column the subsequent character position will be in. FF has been used as "page break" in text files, "new page" on printers and "clear the screen" on displays. The situation was originally unclear whether FF was just a "new page" operator or "new page, move to column 1".
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Traditional definition: Newer definition: The standard meaning of CR is "move to beginning of current line". This allows overprinting the line with new characters, which could be used to achieve underlining, for example.
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For advancing to the next line CR would be followed by LF. CR alone has been used as the newline character on some systems, such as Commodore and Apple, which use does not conform to the standards in question. A non-printing LF was more suitable output while the printing head was returning, rather than striking a graphic symbol in the middle of the line. Used to extend the character set. SO may alter the meaning of the following bit combinations until an SI is reached.
Between SI and SO, character positions decimal may represent additional characters that would not otherwise fit in the regular character set. SO Shift Out is normal name of this control. In those standards, SO is used in 7-bit environments and LS1 in 8-bit environments. It includes the use of escape sequences starting with ESC. SO has also been used on printers to select enlarged characters or another color. Used in conjunction with SO.
It may reinstate the standard meanings of the characters following it. SI Shift In is normal name of this control. In those standards, SI is used in 7-bit environments and LS0 in 8-bit environments. SI has also been used on printers to select condensed characters or to reset color. Used to provide supplementary data transmission control functions. DLE changes the meaning of a limited number of following characters.
DLE is the "escape" character for transmission control. DLE can potentially be put in the front of a transmission control character TC1-TC10 to pass it through "as is" instead of controlling the current transmission. This is not always the case, though. It is possible to create new transmission control sequences with DLE in a similar way ESC is used to create escape sequences for other purposes. Intended to turn on or start an ancillary device, to restore it to the basic operation mode see DC2 and DC3 , or for any other device control function.
DC1 is conventionally called XON when used in communication for software flow control. The name XON "transmit on" does not come from a standard, but it is commonly used. Intended for turning on or starting an ancillary device, set it to a special mode restored via DC1 , or for any other device control function. Intended for turning off or stopping an ancillary device. It may be a secondary level stop such as wait, pause, stand-by or halt restored via DC1. It can also perform any other device control function.
An XOFF is issued to stop transmission when a device cannot accept more data. The name XOFF "transmit off" does not come from a standard, but it is commonly used. Pressing any key continues. Intended to turn off, stop or interrupt an ancillary device, or for any other device control function. NAK can be sent as a response to indicate inability to receive a message, or to request resending.
Used as "time-fill" in synchronous transmission. Sent during an idle condition to retain a signal when there are no other characters to send. SYN has been used by synchronous modems, which have to send data constantly. The receiving station will possibly ignore SYN, since it doesn't belong to the actual data content.
Indicates the end of a block of data. Used when data is divided into blocks for transmission. ETB, when used to end a block, may call for a reply from a slave station. Indicates that data is in error or should be disregarded. There are 2 alternative definitions for the data to be disregarded. The actual scope of cancellation is undefined by the standards and should be defined case by case. Identifies 1 the physical end of a medium, 2 the end of the used portion of a medium, or 3 the end of wanted data on a medium.
EM may have been suitable for paper tape or magnetic tape to say "no more data". Disk file systems use more sophisticated ways to keep track of the used and unused areas of the medium. Used in place of an invalid or erroneous character. Introduced by automatic means in cases like a transmission error. When SUB is used as a substitution character, the reverse question mark symbol seems quite good as its visual representation. SUB has often been used contrary to the standards. The first character of an escape sequence. Provides either supplementary characters or additional control functions.
ESC changes the meaning of a limited number of following characters. ESC is used to form escape sequences, which perform various control functions or apply additional character sets. ESC can also be used to invoke the C1 control characters on a 7-bit system that only support character positions 0— On the keyboard, sometimes the Esc key indeed produces the ESC control character. In windowing environments, the key typically cancels a dialog or an operation, rather than producing a control character or starting an escape sequence.
This kind of an "escape" is not based on the character standards, however. Each separator has two alternative names: The separators can be used either hierarchically or in a non-hierarchical manner. The content and length of a file, group, record or unit are not specified by the standards. FS, when used in a hierarchical order, delimits a data item called a file. It can also delimit anything else.
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GS, when used in a hierarchical order, delimits a data item called a group. RS, when used in a hierarchical order, delimits a data item called a record. US, when used in a hierarchical order, delimits a data item called a unit. The information separators were deliberately arranged next to SPACE, which can also be used as an information separator word separator.
Moves one character position forwards. Space may also have a function equivalent to that of an information separator. Space has a dual nature. It can be classified as both a control character and a non-printing graphic character. SP is similar to a Format Effector. It can also be used as a fifth Information Separator. SP does not belong to the C0 set. An ignorable character originally intended for erasing an erroneous or unwanted character in punched tape. In this standard use, DEL wouldn't affect the information content of data, even though it may have affected the information layout and the control of equipment.
DEL is now outdated. The origin of DEL is with perforated paper. On that, DEL was equal to "all holes punched", which is a way to invalidate an erroneous character rubout. DEL does not belong to the C0 set, but is an individual control code. A reserved control code. Roughly equivalent to a soft hyphen except that the means for indicating a line break is not necessarily a hyphen.
According to ECMA Moves to the first position of the next line. Alternatively, to line home or line limit position.
Starts a string of character positions whose contents can be transmitted. The string ends at EPA or end of display. Ends a string of character positions started by SPA whose contents can be transmitted.
Control characters in ASCII and Unicode
Moves text to the following tab stop. The text is what comes after the previous tab stop up to the active position. This character has several names. Moves down so that following characters will appear as subscripts. Subscripts end at the next PLU. Moves up so that following characters will appear as superscripts. Superscripts end at the next PLD. The next character will be from the currently chosen G2 set. The next character should be in the decimal range or The next character will be from the currently chosen G3 set.
Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Any ideas? Baarn 5, 5 27 Alan Alan 1 3 3. I wish to delete the standalone LF. File Show All Characters: File after Replace 1: File after Replace 2: Final result: Karan Karan Holy crap. This saved my butt.
Groups of control characters
I was tearing my hair out trying to make a files with mixed line endings and this helped so much! It was only on compiling 12, lines which had "duplicates removed plus new code that I realised it was line breaks bad line breaks. You've just saved me hours of work! If I could upvote more than once, I definitely would! ColacX ColacX 9 It works https: Harsh Harsh 11 1. Triskal Triskal 1. Welcome to Super User! Please read the question again carefully. Your answer does not answer the original question. This appears to be an answer to some other completely different question.
If you remove the LF, you will end up with line endings of just CR. This is non-standard. Adrien Adrien 1, 3 Fred Stein Fred Stein 1.
I faced similar issue. Arif Arif 1. Useful, perhaps, but the opposite of what the OP wants. Sudhakar Sudhakar 9. Delete manually if the file is very small file.
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